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Александр Николаевич Островский Alexander Nikolayevich Ostrovsky

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of the school literature curriculum. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary for high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning.

The book deals with the art of the great Russian writer and playwright A.N. Ostrovsky. The authors shed light on what has come to be known as Ostrovsky theater which became an innovator and reformer of Russian stage art. It contains a profound literary and historical analysis of the writer's major plays (‘It’s Family Affair – We’ll Settle it Ourselves!’, ‘The Storm’, ‘The Forest’, ‘Without a Dowry’, ‘Talents and Admirers’).

For school, lyceum and gymnasium teachers, students, high school and college students, applicants, philologists and general readership.

Вступительные экзамены и олимпиады по химии: опыт Московского университета Entrance Examinations and Olympiads in Chemistry: Experience of Moscow University.

The book presents all the examination problems and Chemistry Olympiad problems off ered at the MSU entrance examinations for the fi ve years. For each problem the detailed solution or answer is given. The book is intended for pretenders, entering the University in chemical, biological, and medical specialty, as well as for high school students and teachers of chemistry.

Древнерусская литература Old Russian Literature: To Aid Teachers, High School Students And University Entrants

This book contains a broad analysis of Old Russian literary monuments dedicated to Russian literature of the 11th — early 18th centuries. The collection is based on the work of the department of ancient Slavic literature in the A.M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences and teachers of Moscow State University.

The book is meant for school teachers, high school students, university entrants, college students, as well as to all lovers of ancient literature.

Задания для олимпиад по экологии Tasks for Olympiads on Ecology

The manual is meant for teachers and secondary school pupils, college and university undergraduate students studying Ecology. The materials of the manual can be used to assess the students’ knowledge as well as to facilitate their preparation for contests in Ecology.

The manual provides tasks on the five sections of Ecology: General ecology (Bioecology), Social ecology and Human ecology, Natural resources and their use (Environmental management), Environmental pollution (Applied ecology), and Environmental protection. The tasks are formulated as tests of different levels of complexity and various kinds (free-answer and alternative questions).

When writing the manual its authors applied their experience of teaching Ecology and developing the base of the tasks for different levels of the All-Russian contest on Ecology and ‘Lomonosov’ contest on Ecology at Lomonosov Moscow State University.

История России. Даты и события, причины и следствия. Справочник для подготовки к ЕГЭ History of Russia: Dates and Events, Causes and Effects: A State Exam Preparation Guide

The handbook contains information on the most important phenomena of Russian history: revolutions and reforms, wars and peace treaties, public systems and political organizations, government bodies and state leaders, literary works and geographical discoveries, outstanding writers and scientists. The handbook was compiled on the basis of many years of teaching experience obtained by the author in the All-Russian Extramural School and in the School of a Young Entrepreneur at the Economics Faculty of the Moscow State University.

Information from this book is useful for studying the history of Russia and for those who are preparing for state or university entrance exams.

К тайне «Горя». А. С. Грибоедов и его бессмертная комедия. On the Secret of ‘Woe’. A.S. Griboyedov and His Ageless Comedy

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary for high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning. In this manual, a modern critic re-reads the Griboyedov comedy. Since Russian classical literature in the spiritual basis is traditionally Christ-centered, the image of Christ is invisibly present in the work and there is that unshakable, absolute reference point which should be considered when analyzing the images of characters, their characters and deeds. Referring to the text of the comedy and the biography of Griboyedov, the author proves that the new reading of the comedy corresponds to the true deep design of the author in his timeless work ‘Woe from Wit’.

Каждому по его вере. О романе Булгакова «Мастер и Маргарита» To Each According to Their Faith. On Bulgakov's ‘The Master and Margarita’

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary for high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning.

The title of this book (‘To Each According to Their Faith’) expresses the very essence of the proposed reading of The Master and Margarita. The author draws the reader into a leisurely journey through that ‘labyrinth of cohesions’, which, by definition of L. Tolstoy, is every true artistic work, especially such a complex one as this Bulgakov novel. The artistic and philosophical concept of M. Bulgakov's main book is viewed in comparison with other major phenomena of Russian literature of the 20th century — in particular, with the ‘Blue Book’ of M. Zoshchenko, in which the motley ‘klopovnik’ of the Soviet NEP and post-NEP life, as in Bulgakov’s novel, is depicted against the background of world history.

The book is addressed to teachers of Russian literature, high school students, university entrants, students, as well as all admirers of Bulgakov.

Константин Батюшков Konstantin Batyushkov

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary for high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning. Konstantin Batiushkov is a poet without whom one cannot fully understand Pushkin. The modern school Literature curriculum on considers him a philosopher poet who combines the features of sentimentalism and romanticism. The author reveals the beneficial influence of Russian sentimentalism, whose role had been belittled for many years. He shows the development process of Batiushkov's romantic historical elegy. The book reveals the religious foundations of his philosophical poetry for the first time. It gives an uncensored description of his attitude to the French revolution and its ideologists, paying particular attention to analysis of the poet's works studied in school.

This is the first literary book about Batyushkov addressed to school, lyceum and gymnasium teachers, students and university entrants. It may also be interesting for philologists and everyone who loves Russian poetry.

Крепости и плацдармы Георгия Владимова George Vladimov's Fortresses and Footholds

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary for high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning. This book is the first monographic study of the famous modern prose writer and publicist's works. The fact that Georgi Vladimov is a ‘living classic’ is not contested by anybody. But what book sparkled this belief? Some will say it was the ‘The General and His Army’ — the best Russian novel that received the Booker Prize in 1995. Others will remember ‘Three Minutes of Silence’ — the last book before the author was forced into silence and exile. Some will say that it was ‘Faithful Ruslan’, because it made the author leave the ranks of Soviet writers, and in the end the USSR as well. Many, however, felt his first novel, ‘The Great Ore,’ already conveyed the mastership of the writer.

For school, lyceums and gymnasium teachers, high school and college students, university entrants, philology specialists.

Леонид Андреев. Проза и драматургия Leonid Andreyev. Prose and Drama

The manual is devoted to the work of L. Andreyev, the ‘master of thoughts’ of the Russian pre-revolution intelligentsia, the artist whose almost every new work became ‘an information excuse’ for heated literary and critical debates.

For school, lyceum and gymnasium teachers, high school students, university entrants, philology specialists.

Лирика Афанасия Фета The Lyrics of Afanasy Fet

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary for high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning. This textbook considers the features of A. Fet's lyrics, which stand at the junction of the Pushkin era traditions and the contemporaries' future aspirations to symbolism. The author gives a large amount of material from the history of romance, elegies, and anthological poetry. The main aim of the author is to show Fet's innovative essence, his individual contribution to the development of Russian and world lyric poetry.

For high school students, university entrants, college students, teachers, philologists, and for all lovers of poetry.

Лирика Пушкина как духовная биография Pushkin's Poetry as a Spiritual Biography

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary for high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning. The author of this book set himself the task of investigating Pushkin's poetry as a single phenomenon. For the first time, he introduced the definition of Pushkin's creative work, first of all his poetry, as the ‘spiritual biography’ of the poet, not only showing the facts, but also reflecting the real process of life. The space of this process is time, the main collision is the relationship between Pushkin as a human and Pushking as an art genius. The central subject is the problem of higher human values, ‘ageless truths.’

For teachers of schools, lyceums and gymnasiums, students, high school students, university entrants, philology specialists and a wide range of enlightened readers.

Максим Горький Maksim Gorky

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary for high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning.

The author of this book sees his task in viewing Gorky's 1920s-1930s works in the context of Russian literature of the period and commparing it with the artistic discoveries of his great contemporaries, primarily V. Nabokov and B. Pasternak. A separate chapter is devoted to the writer's artistic world, the originality of his realism, the concept of personality, the hero and the anti-hero. The main attention is paid to the analysis of works that are part of the program for those entering the humanitarian faculties of universities.

The book is addressed primarily to high school students and university entrants. However, high school, gymnasium, lyceum teachers and philologists who study the history of the Russian 20th century literature will find it an interesting read.

Математика в ЕГЭ и олимпиадах: применение тождеств и неравенств Mathematics in the Unified State Exam and Olympiads: the Application of Identities and Inequalities

The manual is devoted to the basic for the formation of mathematical thinking theme — the same equations and inequalities. The book formulates and proves the most important algebraic, trigonometric, logarithmic, hyperbolic, etc. numerical and functional identity equations and inequalities used in solving a wide range of mathematical problems, showing relationships between them. The manual contains 300 tasks of different types with solutions from the introductory assignments and samples of the Unified State Exam in which various identities and inequalities are used to perform transformations and construct necessary assessments. The book may become study support for Math lessons in high school and expand the outlook of the students. It may also be useful for homework assignments.

Recommended for high school students of physical, mathematical and regular schools to prepare for the higher level USE on Mathematics, olympiads and Lomonosov Moscow State University entrance exams.

Математика для поступающих в МГУ Mathematics for MSU applicants

The present fundamental tutorial is aimed at getting the applicants ready for the entrance examination in mathematics required for entering a number of MSU faculties. The book can also be of use to high school pupils and mathematics teachers.

Мир Заболоцкого Zabolotsky’s World

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary for high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning.

The manual deals with N.A. Zabolotsky’s intense moral and spiritual quest, the unique nature of his aesthetic concept, his formulation and solution of universal human questions of life and death, truth and beauty, good and evil. Much attention is paid to the process of the poet’s formation of his philosophical world outlook, his encounter with science and K.E. Tsiolkovsky’s ideas. Noting the innovative nature of Zabolotsky's poetry, the author traces its connection with the tradition of 18th and 19th century Russian philosophical lyrics and recreates the mental attitude of the artist whose influence is strongly felt in the 20th century.

For teachers of schools, lyceums and gymnasiums, students, senior pupils, entrants and philologists.

Н.В. Гоголь. Жизнь и творчество Gogol: Life and Art

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary to high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning.

The book contains the analysis of Gogol’s main works – the comedy ‘The Inspector General’ and the poem ‘Dead Souls’. It considers in detail the fate of the second volume and reveals features of Gogol's poetics, covering those aspects of the writer's biography and creativity that were rarely addressed by pre-revolutionary and Soviet literary critique: his book ‘Selected Passages from Correspondence with Friends’, ‘A Trip to Jerusalem, “Trips to Optina Pustyn”. The author recreates the spiritual and moral appearance of Gogol as a writer and a person.

The book is addressed to high school students, applicants, students, teachers of literature, philologists and all those who are interested in Russian literature.

На войне остаться человеком: Фронтовые страницы русской прозы 1960‒1990-х годов Remaining a Human Being in Wartime: War Front Pages of 1960s – 1990s Russian Prose

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary to high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning.

The manual analyzes the works by the greatest masters of 1960s-1990s Russian military prose who became an organic part of the current school curricula — K. Simonov, Yu. Bondarev, V. Astafyev, K. Vorobiev, G. Baklanov, V. Bogomolov. The reader will undoubtedly find it useful to get acquainted with the analysis of the short stories and novelettes by V. Nekrasov, A. Platonov, M. Sholokhov, with the process of approximating through the artistic word toward the full truth about man at war, about his courage, sorrow of loss and nobleness. Russian military prose will appear here as a very dynamic system of texts with complex interrelations, volatile narrative structures and vivid creative individualities. The book shows the interaction between war prose and the overall literary process of the 60s – 90s.

For teachers of schools, lyceums and gymnasiums, students, high school students, applicants, philologists and a wide range of readers.

Необыкновенная история. Истинные события The Extraordinary Story. True Events

Ivan Goncharov's autobiographical novel ‘The Extraordinary Story’, dated 1875-1876, partially 1878-1879, is almost unknown to the modern reader. The storyline of these highly interesting memoirs is devoted to the creative conflict between Goncharov and Turgenev.

For a wide range of readers.

Николай Рубцов Nikolay Rubtsov

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary to high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning.

The manual is devoted to the poetry of N.M. Rubtsov, a major Russian lyricist of the second half of the 20th century, which is rooted in the national classical and folklore tradition. It gives an outline of the poet’s life and creative path, examines the features of his artistic world that determine the main themes and motifs of the lyrics, characterizes the genre and style peculiarity of his poetry and analyzes the most significant of his poems.

For teachers of schools, lyceums and gymnasiums, high school students, university entrants, students of philology and a wide range of readers.

Николай Семенович Лесков Nikolai Semenovich Leskov

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary to high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning.

This manual is devoted to the creative work of N.S. Leskov who was, in Maxim Gorky’s words, ‘the most original Russian writer’. The introductory chapter gives an idea of Leskov’s difficult literary fate, specific problems of his art and the vivid original style of his works. In the other chapters, the author analyzes the writer’s most popular short stories and novelettes – ‘The Enchanted Wanderer’, ‘Iron Will’, ‘The Tale of the Cross-eyes Lefty from Tula and the Steel Flea’, ‘Toupee Artist’.

For teachers of schools, lyceums and gymnasiums, students, senior pupils, entrants and philologists.

Новое в школьных программах. Русская поэзия ХХ в. Innovations in the School Curriculum. Twentieth Century Russian Poetry

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary to high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning.

In this book, the reader will find under one cover two issues of the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series. One of them analyzes the art of poets from among those who defined the face of Russian lyric poetry from the pre-October period to the mid twentieth century. Special attention is paid to the creations by the two most illustrious Silver Age poets – Alexander Blok and Anna Akhmatova. The other issue contains articles about poets whose artistic gift revealed itself vividly later on in the post-war decades.

For teachers of schools, lyceums and gymnasiums, high school students, university entrants, students, philologists, and all lovers of Russian literature.

Пастернак Pasternak

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary for high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning. This book is dedicated to the art of Boris L. Pasternak - the world’s most studied 20th century Russian poet. His lyrical poems belong to the heights of poetry, his novel ‘Doctor Zhivago’ is the most popular Russian novel of this century and his translations of Shakespeare, Goethe, French and Georgian poets are considered to be second to none. The author also tells about the Nobel Prize laureate’s extraordinary personality and complex life path. The book is addressed to teachers of schools, lyceums, gymnasiums, high school students, university entrants, students, specialists in philology and everyone who loves Pasternak's work.

Последний творческий акт. Случай Мандельштама The Last Creative Act. The Mandelstam Case

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary for high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning. The title of this book goes back to the well-known formula of O. Mandelstam who often said that an artiste’s death is not accidental, that it is not only the last act of the artiste's life, but also his ‘last creative act’, and more than that – it is as it were ‘the source of this creativity, its teleological reason.’ This formula may seem to be just a beautiful metaphor but when applied to the poet himself it acquires an almost literal meaning. Analyzing Mandelstam’s work of the last period, the author proceeds from the premise that the poet not only predicted the tragic end of his life path in his later poems but he also predetermined it. The book focuses on considering the artiste's relationship with the totalitarian regime, unknown to the previous historical epochs.
For teachers of schools and gymnasiums, high school students, applicants, philologists as well as all literature lovers.

Поэзия М.Ю. Лермонтова M.Yu. Lermontov’s Poetry

The book contains a detailed analysis of the works that are incorporated in the college and university curricula for those entering humanities faculties. At the same time, it gives a description of Mikhail Lermontov as a human and creative individual and defines the features of his worldview and artistic manner, providing the main milestones of the poet’s life and creative path. The book also discusses the aspects of Lermontov's biography and art that were rarely dealt with by Soviet literary critics such as his attitude to religion, domestic behavior, certain weaknesses of classically Lermontovian works, etc. The manual is addressed to high school students, applicants, students and teachers.

Поэзия Некрасова Nekrasov’s Poetry

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary for high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning. In his book, the author considers both the epic and lyrical poetry of Nekrasov, analyzes his central works, their (sometimes hidden) meaning as well as features of his genre, style and verse forms. The manual is addressed to high school students, applicants, students and teachers.

Поэтический мир Марины Цветаевой The Poetic World of Marina Tsvetaeva

Books in the ‘Rereading the Classics’ series give a modern analysis of the works that form part of school literature curricula. This is the first attempt to provide a detailed insight into the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the art of 19th and 20th century Russian writers. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge about Russian literature, which is necessary for high school students to pass school-leaving examinations and to gain admission to any institution of higher learning. The manual is devoted to the formation of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poetic world. It focuses on the evolution of Tsvetaeva in the period between 1908 and 1921 – those years saw the foundations of the poet's world laid down. The book provides insights into Tsvetaeva’s ‘Moscow poetics’ which in some ways echoes St. Petersburg acmeism as it traces the formation of the ‘lyrical I’ and the ‘Moscow chronotope’ of the poet - everything that influenced the art of the mature Tsvetaeva and made her a unique phenomenon not only in Russian but also world literature.
For students, schoolchildren, university entrants, university and school teachers, all those who are interested in Tsvetaeva's art.

Проза русского зарубежья (1970‒1980-е) Prose of the Russian Abroad (the 1970s and 1980s)

The books of the series ‘Rereading the Classics’ contain a modern analysis of works that are part of school curricula in literature.
For the first time, the spiritual, moral and religious aspects of the work of Russian writers of the 19th and 20th centuries are thoroughly elucidated. The series is offered as the basis of modern knowledge of Russian literature, necessary for the passing of school examinations and admission to any university. Analyzing the art of 70s-80s émigré prosaists, the author talks about the origins of the ‘third wave’ of the Russian Diaspora, examines the historical background and artistic features of the literary works by all the generations of 70s-80s émigrés writers (from V.P. Nekrasov to Sasha Sokolova), identifies the main directions of their writings and characterizes its themes and genre peculiarity.
For teachers of schools, lyceums and gymnasiums, high school students, students, specialists in philology and lovers of Russian literature.

Путеводитель по «Книге про бойца» А. Твардовского «Василий Теркин» Guide to ‘A Book about a Soldier’, A. Tvardovsky’s Poem ‘Vasily Tyorkin.’

The book ‘Vasily Terkin’ by A. Tvardovsky played an outstanding role during the Great Patriotic War and became, to put it in the words of a front-line soldier, an encyclopedia of the soldier's life which found place for humor that brightened up the endless trench warfare, and the harshest truth, ‘no matter how bitter it was.’ The long-time researcher of the great Russian poet’s life and work tells the story behind this ‘Book about a Soldier’, its complex fate and amazing artistic originality that is still to be fully appreciated.
For teachers of secondary and higher schools, their students, applicants and all lovers of Russian literature.

Путеводитель по «Слову о полку Игореве» Guide to ‘The Tale of Igor's Campaign’

The book is dedicated to the ‘The Tale of Igor's Campaign’, one of the most famous and mysterious Russian literary monuments. Having been published in 1800 only once according to the manuscript that later burnt in the Moscow fire of 1812, ‘The Tale ...’ has constantly attracted the attention of researchers and writers and generated new interpretations for more than two centuries now. The manual examines the authenticity of the ancient Russian ‘poem’, the creation of a twelfth-century nameless scribe or an eighteenth-century mystification, and the problem of the genre nature of the work, the reflection of history in ‘The Tale ...’, obscure (‘dark’) passages and Christian elements in its text. The book is largely an overview of various modern scholarly interpretations of the monument.
For teachers of schools, lyceums and gymnasiums, students, high school students, applicants, philologists and a wide range of readers.